Salzburg (Austrian German: [ˈsaltsbʊɐ̯k]; German: [ˈzaltsbʊɐ̯k] (listen); literally "Salt Fortress"; Austro-Bavarian: Soizbuag) is the fourth-largest city in Austria. In 2020, it had a population of 156,872.The town is on the site of the Roman settlement of Iuvavum. Salzburg was founded as an episcopal see in 696 and became a seat of the archbishop in 798. Its main sources of income were salt extraction, trade and gold mining. The fortress of Hohensalzburg, one of the largest medieval fortresses in Europe, dates from the 11th century. In the 17th century, Salzburg became a centre of the Counter-Reformation, with monasteries and numerous Baroque churches built.
Salzburg's historic centre (German: Altstadt) is renowned for its Baroque architecture and is one of the best-preserved city centres north of the Alps. The historic center was enlisted as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1996. The city has three universities and a large population of students. Tourists also visit Salzburg to tour the historic centre and the scenic Alpine surroundings. Salzburg was the birthplace of the 18th-century composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.